Nouvelles des Membres

The Tokyo Climate Center (TCC) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has released the 39th issue of the TCC News on the TCC website.

This issue covers:
- State of Global Warming in 2014 - The year 2014 was the warmest since 1891.-
- Highlights of the Global Climate in 2014
- Summary of Japan’s Climatic Characteristics in 2014
- TCC Training Seminar on Global Warming Projection Information
- TCC Activity Report for 2014

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04/02/2015 - El mes de enero ha sido ligeramente más frío de lo normal, con una temperatura media mensual de 6,9 ºC, valor que queda 0,4 ºC por debajo de la media de este mes. En cuanto a precipitaciones, ha sido normal o ligeramente más seco de lo normal, con 58 mm, valor que queda cerca de un 10% por debajo de la media.


El mes de enero ha sido ligeramente más frío de lo normal, con una temperatura media mensual promediada sobre España de 6,9º C, valor que queda 0,4º C por debajo de la media de este mes** (Periodo de Referencia: 1981-2010). Se ha tratado del duodécimo mes de enero del siglo XXI en España, según orden descendente de temperatura media.

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On February 2, it is reported from CMA's press conference that in this January, the national precipitation exceeded the normal level and the temperatures reached higher than the normal years. 

In January, 2015, the national average precipitation was 14.4mm, 9% higher than the same period of normal years (13.2 mm). In most areas of Southwest China, southern Guangxi and Guangdong, most areas of Northwest China and central Inner Mongolia, the precipitation was more than the normal years. In western Guangxi, southern Guangdong, central Inner Mongolia, most areas of Northwest China, and Tibet, the precipitation was 50% to 100% more than the normal level. Meanwhile, northern Northeast China, northeastern and western Inner Mongolia, parts of Sichuan, most areas of North China, the Yellow-Huaihe Valley, the Yangtze-Huaihe Valley, South of the Yangtze River, and western Xinjiang saw precipitation 20% to 80% less than the normal year. In Yunnan province, the precipitation was 77.2mm, 380% more than the average.

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2014 was the warmest year in Sweden since measurements began around 1860. The Swedish mean annual temperature was 0.18°C higher than the previous warmest year 1934. In general the year was wetter than normal in the southern part of the country, and drier than normal in the northern part.

The year started with a rather cold January in northern Sweden though. The lowest temperature in Sweden during 2014 was reported from Karesuando with -42.7° on 20 January.

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A variety of methods including dynamical models, statistical methods, regional expert judgments and combination of them have been used to generate long-range weather forecast by the different climate prediction centers around the world. National Agromet Center (NAMC), Pakistan Meteorological Department adopts an ensemble approach to formulate its seasonal weather outlook for Pakistan (on experimental basis), taking into consideration available products from major climate prediction centres and different Global Climate Models (GCMs).

Regional weather (precipitation and temperature) outlook is predicted from different global climate models by using persisted sea surface temperature on 0000 Feb 01, 2015. Model’s output then tuned by applying Regional Correction Factor (RCF). RCF has computed by comparison of Long Range Averages (LRA) with model’s simulation for the period (2004-2012) on monthly basis. That might be somewhat different from actual weather because of time to time variation in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the season. Accuracy of Outlook seasonal weather mainly depend upon SST used in global climate models. Even with use of accurate SST, still is uncertainty in the climate forecast due to chaotic internal variability of the atmosphere. 

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January 2015 was milder than normal in south and central parts of the country, but colder in Lapland. Precipitation levels were in many places nearly twice as high as the average for January.

Image: Janne Pulkkinen

Temperature readings split into two

January was milder then normal in many parts of southern and central parts of the country, with the temperature deviation ranging mostly between two and three degrees. In Central and Northern Lapland, however, the month was between one and two degrees colder than average.

The average temperature for the month does not, however, tell the whole story, as the month was characterised by large temperature variations, with milder and colder periods. The month's lowest temperature, -39.6 °C, was recorded on 11 January in Utsjoki, and the highest, +7.5 °C, was recorded on 1 January in Kristiinankaupunki.

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Second warmest December boosted 2014 to 34th warmest year for contiguous U.S; eight weather and climate disasters exceeded $1 billion in damages

The 2014 annual average contiguous U.S. temperature was 52.6°F, 0.5°F above the 20th century average. Very warm conditions dominated the West, with four states having their warmest year on record, while the Midwest and Mississippi Valley were cool. This ranked as the 34th warmest year since we began keeping track in the 1895, while the temperature exceeded the 20th Century average for the 18th consecutive year.

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The tropical Pacific Ocean has eased away from the borderline El Niño observed during late 2014. Overall, the tropical Pacific region remains neutral.

Neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators include central to eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures, temperatures beneath the sea surface and cloudiness near the Date Line. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) has returned to near to threshold values, but this is primarily due to tropical weather activity near Tahiti rather than a broadscale climate signal. The SOI is often affected by weather phenomena during this time of the year.

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MTSAT-2 imagery dissemination via the HimawariCast service began at 03:00 UTC on 29 January 2015. The service may be suspended without notice until Himawari-8 becomes operational. (29 January 2015)

JMA plans to disseminate Himawari-8 imagery via the HimawariCast service from mid-2015. The originally announced number of satellite bands to be disseminated will be increased. See Dataset. (29 January 2015)

JMA has released software to convert HRIT files into SATAID format for display on a PC. See Software for processing and displaying received data. (29 January 2015)

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29 January 2015 - Scientists from the Met Office are taking part in an EU-wide project to provide highly accurate forecasts of solar storms that affect our everyday lives on Earth.

The Flare Likelihood and Region Eruption Forecasting (FLARECAST) project has been funded by the European Commission to study the origins of solar storms and build a highly accurate solar forecasting service for Europe.

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