|WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION||
|Explanation of the criteria for classification and numbering of components||
|Explanation of the dates on the component's description|
MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE USING TRACERS
1. Purpose and objectives
To provide detailed theory and methodology on the performance of
discharge measurements using tracer dilution techniques.
The manual (Kilpatrick and Cobb, 1985) describes the slug injection
and constant rate injection methods of performing tracer dilution
measurements. Emphasis is on the use of fluorescent dyes as tracers for
performing such measurements. The tracer velocity method is also briefly
discussed. The methods described are particularly appropriate for small
stream, canals, and pipes where (1) turbulence is excessive, (2) cross-
sectional areas or velocities are indeterminate or changing, (3) moving
A measured amount of tracer is injected into the flow to be measured.
The discharge is obtained by measuring the dilution produced.
5. Operational requirements and restrictions
Dyes should not be injected into streams in quantities that would result in dye concentrations exceeding 10 micrograms/litre at water-user withdrawal points. Regulations in different countries may prohibit use of particular dyes.
Equipment needed: Fluorometer to measure rhodamine WT dye concentrations and a constant injection device.
Most of the needed guidance is provided in the manual, however, some
knowledge of hydraulics is beneficial to determine the proper sampling
6. Form of presentation
Manual, written in English, is available (Kilpatrick and Cobb, 1985).
7. Operational experience
Extensive use within the United States.
8. Originator and technical support
U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Surface Water, Reston, Virginia, USA.
10. Conditions on use
The manual is available free of charge.
Kilpatrick, F. A. and Cobb, E. D., 1985, Measurement of discharge using tracers: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water Resources Investigations, Book 3, Chapter A16, 52 pp.
|(First entered: 01 FEB 93||
Last updated: 29 NOV 94)