|WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION||
|Explanation of the criteria for classification and numbering of components|| K55.1.02
|Explanation of the dates on the component's description|
INTEGRATION AND COUPLING OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELS WITH WATER QUALITY MODELS: APPLICATIONS IN EUROPE
1. Purpose and objectives
The new EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which shall be implemented
by all EU nations by2004, calls for more profound water-quality assessment
and planning in Europe. Water-quality models are powerful tools for efficient
water management and planning. The environmental problems that have been
approached so far include, e.g., eutrophication, acidification, and emission
dispersion. Different approaches to model water-quality have been identified,
and there is a large variety of model concepts available. However, many of
these are still applied on a research basis or are site specific. More frequent
water-quality modelling in Europe would be beneficial for decision-makers
and for the introduction of the WFD, but yet no review or compilation of
present European model applications is available. Hence, it is not easy for
water managers to know what models to apply. To provide an overview of
European model applications, and thereby assist water managers in model
selection, this report was prepared for WMO:s Working Group on Hydrology
Regional Association VI (Europe).
Extensive integration and coupling of hydrological models with water
quality models have been performed during the last 20 years. Independently
of which part in the hydrological cycle is considered, most of these models
origin from the U.S.A., but some have also been modified and applied for
Catchment scale (AGNPS, HBV-N, INCA, MAGIC, MERLIN, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN,
Soil water and field scale (ANIMO, EPIC, GLEAMS, HYDRUS/SWMS, MACRO,
PEARL, PRZM, SOILN, WAVE);
Groundwater (ASM/ASMWIN, MODFLOW/MT3D/RT3D);
River channels (AQUASIM, CE-QUAL, MIKE11, PC-QUASAR, QUAL2E, TELEMAC);
Lakes (DELWAQ-BLOOM-SWITCH (DBS), DYRESM, LIMNOD, PC-LAKE (PCLOOS),(PH-ALA);
Urban stormwater (MOUSE, SWMM);
Coastal zone (BSHdmod, DELFT3D, MIKE21, SCOOBI).
In total 36 models are described briefly but thoroughly with webpage
addresses, information of European distribution and references in refereed
journals. The report also presents some decision support systems and on-going
model comparisons in Europe. Moreover, the results are given from a questionnaire
on model applications distributed among authorities in Europe, and finally,
water quality modellers are recommended to contribute to a meta-database,
which is available on WWW.
5. Operational requirements and restrictions
6. Form of presentation
Report in English of 47 pages and 8 tables.
7. Operational experience
8. Originator and technical support
The report was written by Berit Arheimer and Jonas Olsson at the
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI).
- In pdf format: downloadable by clicking here (pdf document).
10. Conditions on use
Subject to the usual laws of copyright with respect to reproduction and distribution..
|(First entered:01 AUG 03||
Last updated: 05 MAR 03)