4.1 Expert Team on Climate and Health


4.1.1 Members of ET 4.1


Glenn McGregor



Wing-mo Leung

Hong Kong, China


Robin Hicks



Ortiz Bulto



Ulisses Confalonieri



Larry Kalkstein



Abdelaziz Ouldbba



4.1.2 Terms of Reference for ET 4.1

Note that in the General Summary Text of the proceedings of the fourteenth session of the Commission for Climatology (3-10 November 2005, Beijing China) it is noted (item 11.2.6(g)) that the Terms of Reference are broad, long-term goals that constitute a framework to guide the work of the Expert Team (ET), and that each ET will set workplans with Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound (SMART) goals consistent with that framework (see 4.1.3 below)


(a) To improve the knowledge of relationships between environmental factors (meteorological parameters, air pollution, housing, ) and reactions of the human organism;

(b) To complete and distribute the WMO/WHO Guidelines on Heat-health Warning Systems and health-related assessments of the thermal environment which will include procedures that could be used worldwide by both climate and health specialists to develop and operate heat/health and cold-spell/health warning systems, and to make recommendations on regional workshops for implementation of the new procedures;

(c) To recommend further actions to make health-related warning systems a fully integrated part of CLIPS operations, Climate Watch and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DPM) systems;

(d) To identify the needs of the health sector for climate information including monthly to seasonal predictions (for planning and in early warning systems) and considerations of climate change, particularly focusing on climate information relevant to increased risks of infectious diseases (e.g. Yellow Fever, Cholera, West Nile Fever, Malaria, Dengue Fever, Influenza, meningitis and possibly Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Avian Influenza);

(e) To consider possible coincidences between temperature extremes and air quality extremes in the different climate regions, and to study health effects of these multiple stress events;

(f) To develop, in partnership with NMHS climate services programmes, the WMO Regional Associations and relevant partners in the health sector, useful and understandable tailored climate products for application to health, including specific attention to high latitudes (role of climate variability and change on health of people and in communities in Polar Regions);

(g) To identify the international and national groups (e.g. the World Health Organization, the International Society of Biometeorology, the International Association of Urban Climatology, and including programmes within NMHSs and in WMO such as Public Weather Services on biometeorology, and the AREP GURME project) with active programmes in climate and health, to gather information on their areas of interest and expertise, and then to investigate potential synergies and projects with these groups;

(h) To incorporate the WMO cross-cutting themes (on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Space/GEO and Least Developed Countries) into planning and activities of the ET, and to collaborate as needed with experts (across all related disciplines) in other CCl ETs, in ETs of other WMO Technical Commissions, and in relevant external Organizations;

(i) To provide guidance on, and make recommendations for, the design and conduct of specific demonstration and pilot projects, including the calculation of cost/benefits and value of climate predictions from the user point of view;

(j) To explore, document and make recommendations for addressing the needs for capacity building in each region, pertinent to this topic;

(k) To submit reports in accordance with timetables established by the OPAG chair and/or Management Group.