4.3    Expert Team on Climate and Tourism


4.3.1  Members of ET 4.3


Dan Scott




Tanja Cegnar [alternate lead]




Mamina Camara




Roger Pulwarty




Mohammad H. Papoli Yazdi




Susanne Becken

New Zealand



Maximiliano Henriquez*




4.3.2 Terms of Reference for ET 4.3

Note that in the General Summary Text of the proceedings of the fourteenth session of the Commission for Climatology (3-10 November 2005, Beijing China) it is noted (item 11.2.6(g)) that the Terms of Reference are broad, long-term goals that constitute a framework to guide the work of the Expert Team (ET), and that each ET will set workplans with Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound (SMART) goals consistent with that framework (see 4.3.3 below)


(a)     To develop methodologies to establish statistical relationships between meteorological conditions and touristic frequentation and destination;

(b)     To assess the impact of climate variability and climate change on the tourism industry, especially in sensitive areas such as coastal zones and mountains, with a view to supporting sustainable tourism (e.g. evaluation of changes in precipitation patterns that can lead to water shortages for major tourist destinations; changes in sea temperatures that can lead to coral bleaching episodes; investigation of thermal and precipitation extremes in mountainous zones; sea-level rise; shifts in seasonality; the role of climate in infrastructure damage, biodiversity change, storm surge waves and their impacts, erosion of shores and beaches, disruption to core services for water, energy and food, etc.);

(c)     To investigate the impacts of the tourism business (air traffic, energy consumption, etc.) on climate (i.e. to explore whether tourism can exacerbate climate change);

(d)     To develop, in partnership with the World Tourism Organization (WTO), NMHS climate services programmes, the WMO Regional Associations, and tourism professionals, tailored climate products for application to tourism, including for destinations at high latitudes;

(e)     To develop templates for climate-related brochures and outreach products, to show to tourists (travelers) the work of the local NMHSs;

(f)      To develop information and methodologies for NMHSs in risk assessment (including to follow on from the WMO/WTO book ‘Handbook on natural disaster reduction in tourism areas’), in collaboration with the WMO DPM Programme;

(g)     To develop information related to climate as a resource (not just a hazard) for WMO Web pages and publications;

(h)     To investigate climato-therapy, in conjunction with the ET on Climate and Health;

(i)      To incorporate the WMO cross-cutting themes (on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Space/GEO and Least Developed Countries) into planning and activities of the ET, and to collaborate as needed with experts (across all related disciplines) in other CCl ETs, with other WMO Technical Commissions, and in relevant external Organizations including the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and IOC/UNESCO, and regional economic groups (e.g. SADC, IGAD, NEPAD, etc.);

(j)      To provide guidance on, and make recommendations for, the design and conduct of specific demonstration and pilot projects, including the calculation of cost/benefits and value of climate predictions from the user point of view;

(k)     To explore, document and make recommendations for addressing the needs for capacity building in each region, pertinent to this topic;

(l)      To submit reports in accordance with timetables established by the OPAG chair and/or Management Group.