CATALOGUE OF ANTARCTIC CLIMATE DATA HELD IN JAPAN

Introduction

Japan resumed its activities in the Antarctic to participate in the scientific programmes of the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 about half a century after the first Japanese party led be Lt. Nobu Shirase was sent there in 1910-1912.

The first Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) was sent on board the "Soya" to the Antarctic in 1956 to carry out scientific research in various fields. On January 29, 1957, the Japanese "Syowa" Station was established at 6900'S, 3935'E on the Ongul Islands, Prince Harald Coast. Six Expeditions were dispatched between 1956 and 1962.

Syowa Station was closed between 1962 and 1965 because of the decommissioning of the resupply ship "Soya". The icebreaker "Fuji" was built during this period. With the new means of transportation Syowa Station was reopened on February 1, 1966 by the 7th JARE and the facilities at the station were expanded.

In July 1970, Mizuho Station was established at 7042'S, 4420'E (2230m above sea level), about 270 km southeast of Syowa Station. In 1976-1985 the station was occupied year-round by several scientists, conducting research on meteorology, glaciology, and upper physics.

The third icebreaker "Shirase" was launched in 1981 and took over the task of "Fuji" in 1983. The commissioning of "Shirase" made it possible for JARE to expand the area of its activities and to establish the Asuka Station at 7132'S, 2408'E (930 m above sea level) to the north of the Sr Rondane Mountains, about 670 km west-southwest of Syowa Station. The station has been used as a base for geological field work in the summer season. Research parties wintered over the station every winter from January 1987 to November 1991.

Meteorological data obtained by JARE

Meteorological observations have been carried out routinely at Syowa Station since the establishment of the station in 1957 (WMO index number 89532). Surface synoptic observations and twice daily aerological observations with the rawinsonde, observations of the total amount and vertical distribution of ozone, direct and global solar radiation, long wave radiation, atmospheric tubidity and UV-spectral radiation are made.

At Asuka Station (89524), surface synoptic observations were carried out during 1987 to 1991, and at Mizuho Station (98544) several meteorological observations including surface synoptic observation were conducted until 1986.

All the results of these observations have been published as the Antarctic Meteorological Data series by the Japan Meteorological Agency and JARE Data Report, Meteorological series by the National Institute of Polar Research.

Atmospheric Trace Gases Data obtained by JARE

JARE has carried out some research project in the expedition. From 28th JARE in 1987, Antarctic Climate Research (ACR) project started at Syowa, Asuka and on board the icebreaker "Shirase". Since 1992, a new project on Antactic Atmospheric Chemistry has been conducted.

The WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), established in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) in October 19990, takes charge of systematic collection and distribution of data on the concentration of greenhouse and the other gases except ozone. The WDCGG periodically distributes "data report" which contains the data submitted from the Antarctic observation stations. These publications are provided to WMO Members an interested scientists free of charge.

Satellite Data obtained by JARE

In the project of ACR, JARE received data from several earth observation satellites. Before this project, HRPT data from TIROS-N/NOAA series satellites were received during 1980-1991; and AVHRR imagery was processed at the station during the ACR project.

Ice Cores Data obtained by JARE

Japanese glaciological research activities have been concentrated in the are of Enderby Land and Queen Maud Land. At Mizuho Station in 1984, a 700 m ice core was successfully drilled.

 

Meteorological Data at Japanese Antarctic Stations

SYOWA (6900'S 3935'E 18 m)

Surface Synoptic Observations 1957.2 - 1958.1 Pressure, Temperature, Wind, Humidity, Cloud, Visibility
1959.2 - 1962.1 Sunshine hours added
1966.2 - Global radiation added
Aerological Observations 1959.2 - 1962.1 10-30 times per month
1966.2 - 1974.2 Once daily
1974.3 - Twice daily
Ozone Observations 1961.2 - 1962.1 Total amount of Dobson spectophotometer
1966.2 - Total amount by Dobson spectophotometer
1966.3 - Vertical distribution by Ozone sonde
Radiation sonde 1966.3 - Vertical distribution of longwave radiation
Direct Solar radiation 1968.3 -  
Atmospheric turbidity 1985.2 - Sunphotometer (6 wavelengths)
Longwave radiation 1991.4 - PIR
Diffuse solar radiation 1991.4 -  
UV-spectral radiation 1991.2 - Brewer spectrophotometer

Mizuho (7042'S 4420'E 2230m)

Surface Synoptic Observations 1971.9-1986.10 Pressure, Temperature, Wind, Cloud, Visibility
Continuously from 1976.5
Global radiation in 1977, 1979, 1980

Asuka (7132'S 2408'E 930m)

Surface Synoptic Observations 1987.2 - 1989.12 Pres., Temp., Humidity, Wind, Cloud, Vis., Global radiation
1990.1 - 1991.11 Sunshine hours added
Aerological Observations 1987.1 - 1991.10 10-50 times per year

Contact:

Office of Antarctic Observations
Japan Meteorological Agency
1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100, JAPAN
Phone, Fax: +813 3211 8409

 

Atmospheric Trace Gases Data at Japanese Antarctic Station and Research Vessel

Syowa (6900'S 3935'E 18m)

CO2 1984 - nondispersive Infrared Analyser (NDIR)
CH4 1988 - Gaschromatograph
Surface O3 1988 - Dasibi ozone meter
Sampling of air for trace gas measurement Co2, CH4, stable isotopes, CFCs* 1984 -
Stratospheric column amount by Visible spectrometer** NO2, 03 1990 -

Research Vessle "Shirase" (from Japan to Antarctica)

Continuous measurements of Atmospheric CO2 and O3, P-CO2 in the surface water 1987 -

Contact:

Dr T. Yamanouchi or Dr S. Aoki
National Institute of Polar Research
1-9-10 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, JAPAN
Phone: +813 3962 5680
Fax: +813 3962 5719

*Prof. Y. Makide
University of Tokyo, Radioisotope Center
2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, JAPAN
Phone: +813 3812 2111 ext. 2875
Fax: +813 3812 0054

**Prof. Y. Kondo
Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory
Nagoya University
13 Honohara 3-chome
Toyokawa 442, JAPAN
Phone: +81 5338 9 5156
Fax: +81 5338 9 3841

Satellite Data received at Syowa Station

NOAA HRPT data 1980-1990 1 pass per day
  AVHRR processed data 1987-1990 1 pass per day
MOS-1/1b MESSR. VTIR, MSR 1989- 1 pass / 1-3 day
ERS-1 SAR 1991- 50 pass per year
JERS-1 SAR, OPS 1992- 30 pass per year

Contact:

Drs T. Yamanouchi, N. Hirasawa or T. Furukawa
National Institute of Polar Research
1-9-10 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, JAPAN
Phone: +813 3962-5680/5904/5580
Fax: +813 3962-5701/5704/5719

 

Ice Cores

Mizuho (7042'S 4420'E 2230m) 1983-84 Depth: about 700m

In addition, several shallow ice cores have been drilled at various locations in the Mizuho Plateau, East Queen Maud Land.

Contact:

Prof. O. Watanabe
National Institute of Polar Research
1-9-10 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, JAPAN
Phone: 813 3962 4742
Fax: 813 3962 4719

 

Data Publishing List

Antarctic Meteorological Data
Office of Antarctic Observations
Japan Meteorological Agency
1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo 100, JAPAN

Vol. 1 Marine Meteorological Data in 1956-1962
Vol. 2 Surface Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1956-1962
Vol. 3 Aerological Data at Syowa in 1959-1962
Vol. 4 Global Solar Radiation and Sunshine Hour at Syowa in 1959-1962
Vol. 5 Marine Meteorological Data in 1965-1966
Vol. 6 Marine Meteorological Data in 1966-1967
Vol. 7 Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1966
Vol. 8 Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1967
 
Vol. 30 Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1989
Vol. 31 Meteorological Data at Syowa and Asuka in 1990
Vol. 32 Meteorological Data at Syowa and Asuka in 1991
Vol. 33 Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1992
Vol. 34 Meteorological Data at Syowa in 1993
Sp. Vol. 1 Ozone Sonde, Electricity Sond and Long Wave Radiation Sonde at Syowa in 1966-1970
Sp. Vol. 2 Ozone Sonde, Electricity Sond and Long Wave Radiation Sonde at Syowa in 1971-1975 and Total Amount of Ozone at Syowa in 1961-1975
Sp. Vol. 3 Ozone Sonde, Electricity Sond and Long Wave Radiation Sonde at Syowa in 1976-1980
Sp. Vol. 4 Ozone Sonde, Electricity Sond and Long Wave Radiation Sonde at Syowa in 1981-1985
Sp. Vol. 5 Summary of Surface and Aerological Observations at Syowa in 1957-1993
Sp. Vol. 6 Summary of Ozone and Radiation Observations at Syowa in 1961-1993 and Summary of Surface Observations at Mizuho and Asuka

 

JARE Data Report

National Institute of Polar Research
1-9-10 Kaga, Itabashi-ku
Tokyo 173, JAPAN

No. 25 (Met. 2) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1971-1973
No. 30 (Met. 3) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1974-1975
No. 40 (Met. 4) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1976-1977
No. 47 (Met. 5) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1977-1978
No. 52 (Met. 6) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1978
No. 57 (Met. 7) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1979
No. 65 (Met. 10) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1980
No. 77 (Met. 12) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1981
No. 86 (Met. 15) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1982
No. 101 (Met. 16) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1983
No. 107 (Met. 18) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1984
No. 130 (Met. 20) Meteorological Data at Mizuho in 1986
No. 140 (Met. 21) Meteorological Data at Asuka in 1987
No. 150 (Met. 23) Meteorological Data at Asuka in 1988
No. 164 (Met. 25) Meteorological Data at Asuka in 1989
No. 179 (Met. 29) Meteorological Data at Asuka in 1990
No. 190 (Met. 30) Meteorological Data at Asuka in 1991

WMO WDCGG Data Report

WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases
Japan Meteorological Agency
1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100, JAPAN

No. 1 WDCGG Data Reporting Manual
No. 2 Green house Gases and Other Atmospheric Gases covering data period: 1967 - 1992.8
No. 3 Green house Gases and Other Atmospheric Gases covering data period: 1971.5 - 1993.8
No. 4 Data Catalogue of Greenhouse Gases and Other Atmospheric Gases
No. 5 Greenhouse Gases and Other Atmospheric Gases covering data period: 1981.1 - 1993.9
No. 6 Greenhouse Gases and Other Atmospheric Gases covering data period: - 1994.3