RUSSIAN FEDERATION

RUSSIAN FEDERAL SERVICE FOR HYDROMETEOROLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (ROSHYDROMET)

CATALOGUE OF RUSSIAN ANTARCTIC METEOROLOGICAL DATA 1994

INTRODUCTION

This catalogue includes a brief historical description of Russian hydrometeorological research in Antarctica as well as the coordinates and periods of operation of all the stations and bases set up by Russian (or Soviet) Antarctic expeditions.

It also presents a summary of the meteorological and upper-air parameters recorded at permanently operating stations, as well as their periods of observation.

Also described are the records of meteorological and aerological information, otatl ozone, carbon monoxide and methane levels, as well as climate data.

BRIEF HISTORY

The first plans for a Soviet Antarctic expedition were drawn up just before the second International Polar Year (1932-1933), but the expedition never took place. Soviet Antarctic expeditions began general, comprehensive scientific research covering the southern oceans as well as the Antarctic mainland in 1956, when preparations were begun for Internation Geophysical Year (IGY).

In February 1956 the participants in the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE) established the Mirny observatory, a scientific station on the Antarctic mainland. In May 1956, observations were begun at Pionerskaya, an inland station located some 375 kilometres south of Mirny. In October 1956 the Oasis station began working, located at the Bunger Oasis, on the coast of Wilkes Land. The inland station Vostok-1, Komsomolskaya and Vostok were founded in 1957; the latter was located near the South Magnetic Pole. In 1958 the Sovetskaya and Polyus Nedostupnosti (Pole of Inaccessibility) stations began observations.

Between 1956 and 1958 eight stations were thus established under the IGY programme. After IGY, observations continued at the Mirny observatory and the Vostok station.

In the following years a number of permanent, seasonal and temporary stations and bases were built.

As form 1968, Molodezhnaya became the main base of Antarctic research as well as the Antarctic Meteorological Centre.

Year-round observations are now made at five stations of the Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE): Molodezhnaya, Mirny, Novolazarevskaya, Bellingshausen and Vostok (which was temporarily closed in 1994). They measure meteorological and upper-air parameters, receive satellite information, an measure the levels of total ozone and of several other atmospheric trace gases. They also conduct a number of studies of the ionosphere.

RUSSIAN (OR SOVIET) ANTARCTIC STATIONS AND POLAR BASES

Name

Coordinates

Synoptic index number

Elevation above sea level (m)

Date opened

Date closed

Molodezhnaya AMC (Antarctic Meteorological Centre)

67 40 S, 45 51E

89542

40

14.01.63

 
Mirny observatory

66 33S, 93 01E

39592

35

13.02.56

 
Vostok station

78 28S, 106 48E

89606

3488

16.12.57

 
Novolazarevskaya station

70 46S, 11 50E

89512

102

18.02.61

 
Bellingshausen

62 12S, 58 56E

89050

16

22.02.68

 
Leningradskaya station

69 30S, 159 23E

89657

300

25.02.71

31.03.91

Russkaya station

74 46S 136 51W

89132

100

09.03.80

12.03.90

Vostok-1 station

72 09S, 96 34E

89594

3252

20.04.57

01.12.57

Komsomolskaya station

74 06S, 97 30E

89596

3500

06.11.57

09.03.59

Lazarev station

69 59S, 12 55E

89511

24

10.03.59

26.02.61

Bunger Oasis station

66 16S, 100 45E

89601

29

15.10.56

17.11.58

Pioneerskaya station

69 44S, 95 31E

89593

2741

27.05.56

15.01.59

Pole of Inaccessability station

82 06S, 54 58E

89550

3800

14.12.58

26.12.58

Sovetskaya station

78 23S 87 32E

89557

3662

16.02.58

03.01.59

Progress station

69 24S 76 24E

89574

64

01.04.88

06.04.92

Druzhba

66 43S, 86 24E

89111

191

20.05.60

06.08.60

Pobeda

64 39S 98 54E

89339

25

09.05.60

12.08.60

Ostrov Drigalskogo (Drygalski Is.) AWS

65 45S, 92 28E

89222

327

11.58

03.60

Ostrov Pobeda (Is.) AWS

64 39S, 98 54E

39339

25

07.60

01.61

Geological camp at Richardson Lake

66 50S, 50 50E

 

20

06.02.62

18.03.62

Camp at Zimmerman Mountain

71 19S, 13 13E

 

1500

13.02.59

26.02.59

Mountain Camp No. 1

71 40S, 9 32E

 

1820

31.12.59

02.02.60

Mountain Camp No. 2

71 47S, 5 49E

 

1640

23.01.60

12.02.60

Mountain Camp No. 3

72 03S, 1 16E

 

1510

17.12.60

12.02.60

Mountain Camp No. 4

71 26S, 11 29E

 

1370

28.01.61

06.02.61

Druzhnaya-1

77 34S, 40 13W

   

12.75

1985

Druzhnaya-2

74 30S, 62 00W

   

13.01.82

21.02.82

Soyuz

70 35S, 68 47E

   

11.82

1988

Druzhnaya-3

71 06S, 10 49W

   

19.01.87

 
Druzhnaya-4

69 45S, 83 43E

   

01.01.87

 
Kupol "B"

77 04S, 94 55E

 

3850

   
Kupol "S"

74 44S, 124 22E

 

3100

   
Salyut

65 32S, 96 30E

   

01.02.78

27.04.78

Sudrozhestvo

69 43S, 73 44E

   

1971

1974

MAIN PARAMETERS MEASURED AT PERMANENTLY OPERATING STATIONS

No.

Element

Molodezhnaya AMC

(Antarctic Meteorological Centre)

Mirny Observatory

Novolaza- revskaya

Belling- shausen

Vostok

Russkaya

Lenin- gradskaya

*1

Temperature

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

2

Minimum

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

3

maximum

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*4

Ground surface temperature

1963

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*5

Pressure

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*6

Wind direction

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*7

Wind speed

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*8

Visibility

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-90

1971-91

*9

Cloud cover

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

*10

Phenomena

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

11

Significant weather events

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

*12

Relative humidity

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

*13

Absolute humidity

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

14

Direct solar radiation

1963-

1956-

1961-

-

1957-

-

-

15

Diffused solar radiation

1963-

1956-

1961-

-

1957

-

-

16

Total solar radiation

1963-

1956-

1961-

1968-

1957-

1980-190

1971-91

17

Reflected solar radiation

1963-

1956-

1961-

-

1957-

   

The observational data are at present available only in the form of tables.

* For parameters marked with an asterisk, information is available from 1978 to 1989 on magnetic tape from the VNIIGMI-WDC (Obninsk):

Contact:

Mr B.M. Arshinov
VNIIGMI-WDC
Ulitsa Koroleva, 6
Kaluzhskoi Oblast
249020 Obninsk
Russian Federation

Fax: (095) 255 2225

 

ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE AND WIND SOUNDINGS AT THE ANTARCTIC STATIONS

Number

Station Name

Date Observation began

Observation times

Remarks

1

Molodezhnaya

1964

1964-69 00 GMT (UTC)
1970-91 00.12 GMT (UTC)
1992-94 00 GMT (UTC)
Observations suspended as from 4.1994

2

Mirny

1956

1956-69 00 GMT (UTC)
1961-82 00.12 GMT (UTC)
1983- 00 GMT (UTC)
Interruption from 8.1960 to 12.1961

3

Vostok

1957

00 GMT (UTC) Interruption from 12.4.82 to 1.4.83, and station mothballed as from 1.1991

4

Novolazarevskaya
Lazarev station

1961

00 GMT (UTC) Interruption from 3.1991 to 10.2.1994

5

Bellingshausen

1969

00 GMT (UTC) No remarks

6

Leningradskaya

1983

00 GMT (UTC) Interruption from 4.5.1985 to 20.4.1986, and station mothballed as from 5.3.1991

 

Data from the beginning of observations to 1978 are available only in the form of tables.

Records of upper-air observations at Antarctic stations

Mirny (89592)

Times: 00, 12

July 1978 - December 1993
Vostok (89606)

00, 12

July 1978 - December 1993
Molodezhnaya (89542)

00,12

July 1978 - December 1993
Novolazarevskaya (89512)

00

July 1978 - December 1993
Bellinsgauzen (89050)

00

July 1978 - December 1993
Leningradskaya (89657)

00

1983-1990

Values are availalble on magnetic tape for geopotential, temperature, dew-point deficit, wind direction and wind speed at standard isobaric surfaces (1000, 925, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 100, 70, 50, 20 and 10 hPa) and also for specific points of temperature and wind anomalies and levels, as well as at the tropopause and maximum wind levels.

 

Ozone

Mean daily total ozone content (M-83/M-124 filter ozonmeter):

Mirny 1975-
Novolazarevskaya 1987-1991
Vostok 1978, 1981, 1986-1991

 

Trace gases

Mean daily total CO and CH content (infrared spectrometer):

Molodezhnaya 1977-1978
Mirny 1982

 

Climate data records

The records include the monthly and annual means for surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, absolute humidity (partial water vapour pressure), total cloud cover, low cloud cover, precipitation, as well as the variance and maximum and minimum values for these parameters at the following fixed stations:

Bellingshausen 1968-
Vostok 1958-1993
Leningradskaya 1971-1989
Mirny 1956-
Molodezhnaya 1963-
Novolazarevskaya 1961-
Russkaya 1980-1989

 

Contact for the above data:

Mr A.I. Danilov, Deputy Director
Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute (AANII)
Beringa, 38
199397 Saint Petersburg
Russian Federation

Tel: (812) 352 1557
Fax: (812) 352 2688
Tlx: 121423 NILAS SU
Email: aaricoop@sovam.com