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Environmental Emergency Response

(Last update on 28 September 2001)


APPENDIX I-3

REGIONAL AND GLOBAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE PROVISION OF TRANSPORT MODEL PRODUCTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE

SUPPORT FOR NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE

        Notification of WMO

  In accordance with the IAEA Convention on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, the IAEA shall notify the WMO Secretariat and the  RTH Offenbach (Germany) of an accident occurrence and/or whether emergency meteorological support is required. RTH Offenbach will put the EMERCON message on the GTS in the form of an alphanumeric bulletin in plain-text English language under the abbreviated heading WNXX01 IAEA for global distribution to the NMCs and RSMCs. (See also the WMO Manual on the GTS (WMO Publication No. 386).

For an IAEA-notified emergency for which emergency meteorological support was requested, the IAEA shall send a timely message to the RSMCs, WMO Secretariat and RTH Offenbach informing that the IAEA no longer requires emergency meteorological support. RTH Offenbach will put the EMERCON message on the GTS in the form of an alphanumeric bulletin in plain-text English language under the abbreviated heading WNXX 01 IAEA for global distribution to the NMCs.

 

Regional arrangements

        The RSMCs designated by WMO for the provision of atmospheric transport model products for nuclear environmental emergency response shall:

1. Provide products only when either the Delegated Authority of any country in the RSMC region of responsibility or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), requests RSMC support. Upon receipt of a request from the delegated authority or from the IAEA, the RSMC shall provide basic information to the national Meteorological Service of that country or to the IAEA respectively;

2. Upon receipt of a first request for services related to a nuclear incident and in the absence of a prior notification by the IAEA inform the WMO Secretariat, all designated RSMCs and IAEA of the request;

3. For an IAEA notified emergency, distribute the basic products to the IAEA and all national Meteorological Services in the Region. For a request for services without Notification by IAEA, basic information provided to the national Meteorological Service of the requesting country will not be disclosed to the public in that country nor distributed by RSMCs to other national Meteorological Services;

4. Provide, on request, support and advice to the IAEA and WMO Secretariats in the preparation of public and media statements;

                    5.     Determine the standard set of products and the method of delivery in consultation with users and the IAEA;

                    6.     Provide product interpretation guidelines to users;

7. Provide support and technology transfer to national and regional meteorological centres that want to become designated RSMCs;

8. Make arrangements to provide backup services. These would normally be between the two designated centres in a Region. Interim arrangements should be made by centres in regions with a single designated RSMC.

 

Global arrangements

Until such time as new RSMCs have been designated, it is proposed that Regional Association VI-designated RSMCs be responsible to provide services for radiological emergencies to Regional Association I; Regional Association IV-designated RSMCs be responsible to provide services to Regional Association III; while the Regional Association V-designated RSMC, in collaboration with Regional Association IV-designated RSMCs, will be responsible to provide services to Regional Association V.

In cases of radiological emergencies where coordination is required between RSMCs of different Regions, the RSMCs of the Region where the emergency has occurred will provide this coordination.

 

Support for non-nuclear environmental emergency response

If support is required for response to a non-nuclear environmental emergency, related to atmospheric transport of pollutants the Permanent Representative with WMO of the affected country may direct its request for support to the operational contact point of the designated RSMC(s) for its Regional Association;

1. Due to the potentially broad range of environmental emergencies, the RSMC shall consider each request with regard  to its capabilities and the suitability of its products to address the emergency requirements and will then respond accordingly;

2. The RSMC shall inform all other designated RSMCs and the WMO Secretariat of the request and the agreed actions.


APPENDIX II-7

STANDARDS IN THE PROVISION OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICES BY RSMCS FOR NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE

The Delegated Authority requests for WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMC) support for atmospheric transport modelling products by using the form entitled "Environmental Emergency Response Alert - Request for WMO RSMC Support by Delegated Authority". The Delegated Authority then sends the completed form immediately to the RSMCs as per the regional and global arrangements.

The designated RSMCs shall implement agreed standard procedures and products by:

    1. The adoption of the following common default source parameters for the initial run of the transport/ dispersion models;
    2. The provision of the following standard set of basic products within two to three hours of reception of a request and according to the general rules for displaying results;
    3. The adoption of the following forecast periods for the numerical calculations;
    4. The adoption of a joint response approach;

(e) The adoption of the general rules for displaying results.

1. Default source parameters for the initial run

    1. Uniform vertical distribution up to 500m above the ground;
    2. Uniform emission rate during six hours;
    3. Starting time 0000 UTC or 1200 UTC if not known;
    4. Total pollutant release 1 Bq (Becquerel) over 6 hours;

(e) Type of radionuclide Cs 137.

2. Standard set of products for initial response

Five maps consisting of:

    1. Three-dimensional trajectories starting at 500, 1500 and 3000m above the ground, with particle locations at 6h intervals (main synoptic hours up to the end of the dispersion model forecast);
    2. Time-integrated airborne concentrations within the layer 500m above the ground, in Bq.s m-3 for each of the three forecast periods;
    3. Total deposition (wet + dry) in Bq m-2 from the release time to the end of the dispersion model forecast.

3. Forecast periods for numerical calculations

The initial set of products will cover the period from T, the start time of the release, through a forecast of 72 hours from t, the start time of the current output from the operational NWP model.

The first 24-hour period for integrated exposures in the dispersion model will start at the nearest synoptic time (0000 or 1200 UTC) prior to or equal to T. Subsequent 24-hour integrations of the dispersion model will be made up to, but not exceeding, the synoptic time nearest to t+72.

If T is earlier than t, the first response will use hindcasts to cover the period up to t.

4. Joint response and joint statements

A joint response means that the two collaborating RSMCs shall immediately inform each other of any request received; initially both should produce and send the standard set of products (charts) independently and then move rapidly towards providing fully coordinated response and services for the duration of the response. Following the initial response, the RSMCs shall develop and provide, and update as required, a "joint statement" to describe a synopsis of the current and forecast meteorological conditions over the area of concern, and the results from the transport models, their differences and similarities and how they apply to the event.

5. General rules for displaying results        

            In order to make the interpretation of the maps easier, the producing centres should adopt the following guidelines:

            General guidelines for all maps:

(a) Provide labelled latitude and longitude lines at 10 intervals and sufficient geographic map background (shore lines, country borders, etc.) to be able to locate precisely the trajectories and contours;

(b) Indicate the source location with a highly visible symbol (l, %, X, *,n , etc.);

(c) Indicate the source location in decimal degrees (latitude - N or S specified, longitude - E or W specified, plotting symbol used), date/time of release (UTC), and the meteorological model initialization date/time (UTC);

(d) Each set of maps should be uniquely identified by at least product issue date and time (UTC) and issuing centre;

                              (e) Previously transmitted products from the dispersion model need not be re-transmitted;

(f) Indicate with a legend if this is an exercise, requested services or an IAEA notified emergency.

                Specific guidelines for trajectories map:

(a) Distinguish each trajectory (500, 1500, 3000m) with a symbol (%, l, n, etc.) at synoptic hours (UTC);

(b) Use solid lines (darker than map background lines) for each trajectory;

(c) Provide a time-height (m or hPa) diagram, preferably directly below the trajectory map, to indicate vertical movement of trajectory parcels.

                Specific guidelines for concentration and deposition maps:

(a) Adopt a maximum of four concentration/deposition contours corresponding to powers of 10;

(b) A legend should indicate that contours are identified as powers of 10 (i.e., -12 = 10-12). If grey-shading is used between contours, the individual contours must be clearly distinguishable after facsimile transmission and a legend provided on the chart;

(c) Use solid dark lines (darker than map background lines) for each contour;

(d) Indicate the following input characteristics: (i) source assumption (height, duration, isotope, amount released); (ii) the units of time integrated concentration (Bq.s m-3) or deposition (Bq m-2). In addition, charts should specify: (i) "Time integrated surface to 500m layer concentrations"; (ii) "Contour values may change from chart to chart"; and if the default source is used; (iii) "RESULTS BASED ON DEFAULT INITIAL VALUES";

(e) Indicate, if possible, the location of the maximum concentration/deposition with a symbol on the map and include a legend indicating the symbol used and maximum numerical value;

(f) Indicate the time integration starting and ending date/time (UTC).

The RSMCs will normally provide the products in the ITU-T T4 format suitable for both group 3 facsimile machines and transmission on parts of the GTS. The RSMC may also make use of other appropriate technologies.

 


Environmental Emergency Response Alert

Request for WMO RSMC Support by Delegated Authority

This form should be sent by fax to the RSMC. At the same time, the Delegated Authority must immediately call the RSMC to confirm the transmission of this Request for RSMC Support.

(This section must be completed in full)

 

STATUS:........................................ (EVENT OR EXERCISE) Date/Time of Request:......................................................................... (UTC)

NAME OF DELEGATED AUTHORITY: ...........................................................................................................................................................

COUNTRY: ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................

DELEGATED AUTHORITY TELEPHONE/FAX NUMBERS: .(……).................................................................................................. (Tel)

                                                                                                                 .(……).................................................................................................. (Fax)

REPLY TELEPHONE/FAX NUMBERS FOR NMS OF
REQUESTING COUNTRY:                                                               (……)................ .................................................................................. (Tel)

                                                                          (........)....................................................................................................(Fax)

NAME OF RELEASE  SITE:................................................................................................................................................ (facility and place)

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF RELEASE:................................................................................................ (lat./long. decimal degrees
                                                                                                                                                                                       "N or S; E or W")

 

(essential accident information for model simulation - if not available, model will execute with standard default values)

RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS:

START OF RELEASE:.............................................................................................................................................................. (date/time, UTC)

DURATION:................................................ (hours),       or end of release .......................................................................... (date/time, UTC)

RADIONUCLIDE SPECIES:...................................................................................................................................................................................

               TOTAL RELEASE QUANTITY:....................................................................................................................................... (Becquerel)

               OR POLLUTANT RELEASE RATE:..................................................................................................................... (Becquerel/hour)

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT OF RELEASE:       surface:.................................................................................................................................... .or

                                                                             stack height:....................................................................................................................(m), or

                                                   aloft top:............................... (m),           base .................................................................... (m)

(helpful information for improved simulation)

SITE ELEVATION:........................................................................................................................................................................................... (m)

LOCAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS NEAR ACCIDENT:.............................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (wind speed and direction/weather/cloudiness, etc.)

OTHER INFORMATION: ......................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................ (nature of accident, cause, fire explosion, controlled release,

                                                                                                          foreseeable development, normal activity, projected conditions, etc.)

 

(to be completed by RSMC)

DATE/TIME OF RECEIPT OF REQUEST:...............................................................................................................................................(UTC)

DATE/TIME OF RETURN CONFIRMATION OF RECEIPT:................................................................................................................................................(UTC)

Note: All times in UTC

 


Notes:

(1)   The person authorised by the Permanent Representative of the country to request RSMC support.

(2)   The RSMC products will be provided to the NMS Operational Contact Point designated by the Permanent Representative.

(3)   The basic information will normally be provided by the NMS to the IAEA national contact point.



Notes:

4This concept is based on the understanding that the first (initial) run of the transport/dispersion models needs to be carried out with default parameters because little or no information (except location and accident time) will be available to the RSMC at this early stage. RSMCs are, however, requested to conduct subsequent model runs with more realistic parameters as they become available. This may, for example, refer to a more precise assumption of the vertical distribution or the need to conduct a model run for the release of noble gases.


 

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