WMO Spelling List world map

WMO spelling list

This list has been made based on the United Nations Editorial Manual and adapted for WMO use.

Use “-ize” verb endings, and related “-ization” noun endings

Examples: organize, organization; realize, realization; nationalize, nationalization; utilize,utilization; emphasize; maximize; minimize; optimize and so forth.

Exceptions: advertise, advise, analyse, catalyse, comprise, demise, despise, paralyse, revise, surprise, televise

Notes:
* Indicates a change from previous practice.
** Indicates an exception to the twelfth edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary.
* ** Indicates both a change from previous practice and an exception to the twelfth edition.

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A

 
about (for numbers, e.g. about 3,000;
  about one-third; for dates, use “around”)
above-mentioned
abridgement
acknowledgement
addenda
ad hoc
ad infinitum
advertise, advertisement, advertiser
advice (noun)
advise, adviser
aeroplane
aesthetic
aforementioned
after: compound forms are closed;
  exceptions: after-effect, after-image
age 5, 6, etc. (also 5, 6, etc. years of age)
age group (age group 15-19, etc.)
aged 5 years or over
agroecological
agroecosystem
agroforestry
agro-industry
agrometeorology
agropastoral
aide-memoire (plural: aides-memoires)
air conditioner, air conditioning
  air-conditioned
aircraft (singular and plural)
aircrew
airfield
airmass
airspace
air traffic control
allot, allotted, allotment
aluminium
analogue (but analog in computer
  technology)
analyse
antenna (plurals: -ae (insects),
  -as (aerials))
antimalarial
antimicrobial
anti-poverty
a posteriori
appal, appalled, appalling
appendices
a priori
arabic numeral
around (use for dates, e.g. around 1990,
  around December; for numbers, use
  “about”)
artefact
attaché
audio tape (noun)
audiotape (verb)
audio-visual
awareness-raising (noun and adj.)
 
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B

 
backstop (noun and verb)
back up (verb)
backup (noun and adj.)
backward (adj.)
backwards (adv.)
balance of payments (noun)
balance-of-payments (adj.)
balance sheet
bandwidth
baseline
base-year (adj.)
beforehand
behaviour
benefited, benefiting
bi: compound forms are closed
biannual (twice a year)
biased
biennial (every second year)
biennium (plural: bienniums)
bio: compound forms are closed
bis
bookkeeping
bottleneck
break down (verb)
breakdown (noun)
breakthrough
break up (verb)
break-up (noun)
broadband (telecommunications)
build up (verb)
build-up (noun)
bureaux (plural)
burned (past tense and past participle)
buy-back (noun)
by-catch
by-law
by-product
bystander
 
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C

 
calibre
cancelled, cancelling
cannot
canvas (cloth)
canvass (to solicit)
capacity-building (noun and adj.)
capital
caregiver
care provider
caretaker
carte blanche
carry over (verb)
carry-over (noun)
case-by-case (adj.)
case study
catalogue
catalyse
cathode ray tube
CD-ROM
centimetre
centilitre
Central Asia
Central Europe
centre, centred, centring
  (but US National Hurricane Center, etc.)
centrepiece
changeover (noun)
channelled, channelling
chargé d'affaires (plural: chargés)
checklist
checkpoint
check-up (noun)
chef de cabinet
cheque (bank)
chequebook
chlorofluorocarbons
classroom
clearing house
climate related (pred. adj.)
climate-related (attrib. adj.)
closed-end (adj.)
clue (not clew, except in nautical sense)
co: most compound forms are hyphenated:
  co-locate, co-payment, co-sponsor;
  exceptions include: coequal, coexist,
  cofactor, cogeneration, cohabit,
  cooperate, coordinate
cold wave
colloquium (plural: colloquiums)
colour
combatant
combated, combating
communiqué
compel, compelled
compendium (plural: compendiums)
comprise
confidence-building (noun and adj.)
connection
consensus
cooperate, cooperation
coordinate, coordination
copy-edit
copy editor
cornerstone
corrigenda
cost accounting
cost-allocation method
cost-effective(ness)
cost-efficiency, cost-efficient
cost-of-living index
cost recovery (noun)
cost-recovery (adj.)
councillor
counsel (noun: singular and plural)
counselling, counsellor
counteract
counter-argument
counter-attack
counterbalance (noun and verb)
counterclaim
counterclockwise
countermeasure
counterpoint
counterproductive
countryside
countrywide
coup d’état (plural: coups d'état)
co-worker
creditworthiness
cropland
cross-country
cross-cutting
cross reference (noun)
cross-reference (verb)
crossroad(s)
cross-section
cross-wind
curriculum vitae (plural: curricula vitae)
cut back (verb)
cutback (noun)
cut off (verb)
cut-off (noun and adj.)
cyber: compound forms are closed
 
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D

 
data (plural noun)
databank
database
data collection (noun)
data-collection (adj.)
data processing (noun)
data-processing (adj.)
dataset
daylight
daytime
death rate
decision-maker
decision-making (noun and adj.)
de facto
defence (but United States Department
  of Defense)
de jure
demise
dependant (noun)
dependent (adj.)
depositary (person or entity with whom a
  treaty is deposited)
depository (warehouse)
derestricted
desiccate
desktop
despise
détente
dewpoint
diarrhoea
digitize
Director-General (but Director General
  of IAEA)
disc (but disk in computer technology)
discreet (prudent)
discrete (separate)
dispatch
downlink
download
downdraught
downscale, downscaling
downstream
downward (adj. and adv.)
downwind
draft (text)
draught (air and animal)
draughtsman
drinking water
drop out (verb)
dropout (noun)
dry land (land as opposed to sea)
dryland(s) (type of ecosystem)
duststorm
dysfunction, dysfunctional
 
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E

 
e: all compound forms are hyphenated
  (e.g. e-commerce)
early warning system
earmark
earth (soil)
Earth (planet)
east(ern) (a geographical direction or an
  area within a country)
East(ern) (a major region, e.g. East
  Africa, Eastern Europe )
eastward
economic (financial, monetary, budgetary,   etc.)
economical (cost-effective, money-saving,   inexpensive)
ecosystem
ecozone
El Niño
e-mail
embargo (plural: embargoes)
embarkation
émigré
encyclopedia
endeavour
endogenization
endogenous
end product
end result
end-user
energy-efficient
enquire, enquiry (referring to a request
  for information) (cf. inquire)
enrol, enrolled, enrolling, enrolment
en route
ensure
enterprise
environmentally friendly
equalled, equalling
Equator
equipped, equipping
et al. (preferred: and others)
euro, euros (or use symbol: €)
every day (adv.)
everyday (adj.)
exaggerate
ex gratia
ex officio
exorbitant
expel, expelled, expelling
exposé
ex post facto
extended use-effectiveness, use-failure
extrabudgetary
extra-curricular
extrajudicial
extralegal
extraregional
extraterritorial
extra-tropical
eyewitness
 
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F

 
fact-finding
fait accompli
fall-off (noun)
fall out (verb)
fallout (noun)
farmland
far-reaching
favour, favourable
feedback
fibreglass
fibre-optic (adj.)
fibre optics (noun)
field trip
fieldwork, fieldworker
fine-tune
first-hand (adj. and adv.)
fixed-period (adj.)
flash flood
flavour
flow chart
flowsheet
focused, focusing
follow-through (noun)
follow-up (noun and adj.)
foodgrains
foodstuff
footnote
force majeure
forcible
forecast (noun, adj., past tense, past participle)
foregoing (preceding)
forest lands
forever
foreword (to a book)
forgo (go without)
formulas (but formulae for mathematics)
forum (plural: forums)
freelance
freshwater (noun and adj.)
front line (noun)
front-line (adj.)
fuelled, fuelling
fuelwood
fulfil, fulfilled, fulfilling, fulfilment
fund-raising
 
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G

 
gauge
gender-neutral
gender-specific
girl child
good-neighbourly (adj.)
goodwill
gram (g)
grassland(s)
grassroots (noun and adj.)
grey
groundwater (noun and adj.)
groundwork
guidelines
 
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H

 
haemorrhage
hailstone
hailstorm
halfway
harbour
headquarters, e.g. WMO headquarters
headwater
heatwave
helpdesk
heretofore
hiatus (pl. hiatuses)
high pressure (noun), high-pressure (adj.)
high quality (noun), high-quality (adj.)
high resolution (noun), high-resolution (adj.)
historic (famous/important in history; e.g.
a historic event)
historical (of/concerning history;
  e.g. historical evidence)
home-made
homeowner(ship)
homepage
homogeneous
honorarium (plural: honorariums)
honorary
honour
human being
humankind
hydroelectric
hydrometeorological
hydropower
hydrosystem
hygiene
hyper: compound forms are closed,
  e.g. hypersensitive
 
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I

 
ibid.
icebreaker
ice storm
idem
imperilled
inasmuch as
income generation (noun)
income-generation (adj.)
in depth (adv.)
in-depth (adj.)
index (plurals: indexes (lists in a book),
indices (statistical))
indispensable
information and communications
  technology (ICT)
infra-red
in-house
initialled, initialling
in kind (adj. and adv.)
Inmarsat
inquire, inquiry (referring to a formal
  investigation) (cf. enquire)
in-session (adj.)
in situ
install, installation, instalment
instil
institution-building
insure (take out insurance)
interactive
inter-agency
inter alia
inter-American
interannual
intercomparison
intercountry
intercultural
interdepartmental
interdependence
interdisciplinary
interdivisional
intergenerational
intergovernmental
inter-group
inter-industry
inter-institutional
interlink, interlinkage
Internet
inter-organizational
interprovincial
interregional
interrelate
intersectoral
intersessional
interspace
inter-State (between countries)
interstate (between States within a
  country)
inter-unit
in toto
intra-agency
intracountry
Intranet
intraregional
intra-urban
in vitro
inward
ipso facto
 
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J

jet stream
judgement/judgment
judgemental
 
 
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K

 
Kelvin
kilogram(s) (kg)
kilometre(s) (km)
kilovolt-ampere(s) (kVA)
kilowatt(s) (kW)
kilowatt-hour(s) (kWh)
know-how
 
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L

 
labelled, labelling
laborious
labour
labour-force (adj.)
labour-market (adj.)
laissez-faire
laissez-passer (singular and plural)
landholder
landlocked
landowner
landslide
land use (noun)
land-use (adj.)
laserdisc
lawmaker
law-making
lay off (verb)
layoff (noun)
lead time
learned (past tense and past participle)
Least Developed Countries
levelled, levelling
liaison
licence (noun)
license (verb)
life cycle
lifelong
lifespan
lifestyle
lifetime
linchpin
litre
living space
loc. cit. (preceded by name of author)
log in, log on, log off, log out (verb)
login, logon, logoff, logout (noun)
long-lasting
long-standing (adj.)
long-term (adj.)
long wave (noun), long-wave (adj.)
loophole
low-level (adj.)
low-prevalence pattern
low-variant projections
 
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M

 
machine-readable
macro: compound forms are closed;
  exception: macro-unit
mainframe
mainland
man-hour
man-made
manoeuvre
manpower
many-sided
marketplace
market town
mark up (verb)
markup (noun)
marshalled, marshalling
master plan
materiel
matrices
meagre
meantime
meanwhile
medium-high/low
medium range (noun), medium-range (adj.)
medium-sized (adj.) (e.g. small and
  medium-sized companies)
medium term (noun), medium-term (adj.)
medium wave (noun), medium-wave (adj.)
meeting place
megacity
megajoule(s) (MJ)
megavolt(s) (MV)
megavolt-ampere(s) (MVA)
member (e.g. of a working group)
Member (of WMO)
memorandum (plural: memorandums)
Meteosat
meter (instrument)
metre(s) (m) (unit of length)
method-specific rates
micro: compound forms are closed;
  exceptions: micro-environment,
  micro-organism, micro-unit
mid-1990s, mid-2004
mid-air
midday
middle-high/low
middleman
midpoint
midstep
midterm
midway
midweek
midyear
mileage
millenniums
millimetre
millilitre
millibar (use hectopascal (hPa))
minicomputer
minimize
misspelled
Mlle(s) (no period)
Mme(s) (no period)
modelled, modelling
modus operandi
moneys
moratoriums
mores
mould
movable
Mr
Mrs
Ms
much-needed (adj.)
mudslide
multi: compound forms are closed, with
  the following exceptions: multi-access,
  multi-bilateral, multi-cause, multi-
  centred, multi-client, multi-country,
  multi-donor, multi-ethnic,
  multi-faith, multi-hazard,
  multi-purpose, multi-skilled,
  multi-stakeholder, multi-storey,
  multi-user, multi-utility, multi-year
  mutatis mutandis
 
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N

 
nationwide
neighbour
nevertheless
next-generation (attrib. adj.)
night-time
nobody
no-man’s-land
non: compound forms are hyphenated;
  exceptions include:
  nonconformist, nonfeasance, nonetheless
no one
north(ern), north-east(ern),
north-west(ern) (a geographical
  direction or an area within a country)
North(ern) (a continent or
  major region, e.g. North America,
  North Africa, Northern Europe)
northern hemisphere
North Pole
northward
note verbale (plural: notes verbales)
nowcast, nowcasting
 
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O

 
odour
offence
offensive
offhand
off season (noun)
off-season (adj. and adv.)
offset
offshore
off site (adv.)
off-site (adj.)
offspring (singular and plural)
oilfield
old age (noun)
old-age (adj.)
ombudsman (plural: ombudsmen)
one-sided
ongoing
online
on-screen
on site (adv.)
on-site (adj.)
onward (adj.and adv.)
op. cit. (preceded by name of author)
organization (but European Organisation for
  the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites)
organize
out of date (pred. adj.)
out-of-date (attrib. adj.)
outsource
over: most compound forms are closed;
  exceptions include:
  over-abundant, over-represent, over age 5
 
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P

 
panellist
paralyse
paramedical
passer-by (plural: passers-by)
payback (noun)
payday
payroll
peacebuilder, peacebuilding
peacekeeper, peacekeeping
peacemaker, peacemaking
peacetime
per annum
per capita
per cent
percentage
per diem
peri-urban
per se
place name
plateau (plural: plateaux)
plebiscite
plough
polar-orbiting (attrib. adj.)
policyholder
policymaker, policymaking
postgraduate
post-mortem
post-natal
post-session
post-war
power plant
power-sharing
practice (noun)
practise (verb)
précis
preconceive
precondition
pre-construction
pre-date
predefine(d)
predeployment
pre-empt
pre-inspection
pre-investment
pre-position but preposition (grammar)
pre-qualified, pre-register
preschool
pre-screened
pre-session
pretence
pre-war
prima facie
principal (first in rank) (noun and adj.)
principle (fundamental truth) (noun)
printout
procès-verbal (plural: procès-verbaux)
program (computing only)
programme
proofread, proofreader
pro rata
psycho: compound forms are closed
public-health (adj.)
 
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R

 
radioactive
radio frequency
radioisotope
radio wave(noun), radio-wave (adj.)
rainband
rainbelt
raindrop
rainfall(s)
rainfed
rainforest
raingauge
rainstorm
rainwater (noun)
raison d’être
range area
rangeland(s)
rapprochement
reactivate
readmit
reaffirm
realize
reallocate
real time (noun), real-time (adj.)
reanalysis
reappoint
rearrange
reauthorize
recost
recurvature
redeploy
re-elect
re-emphasize
re-employ
re-establish
re-evaluate
re-examine
referendums
refinance
reflection
regime
regionwide
reinforce
reinstate
reissue
remote-sensing
remotely sensed
reorganize
reorient
re-route
résumé
reutilize
reversible
revise, reviser
rigorous
rigour
risk assessment (noun and adj.)
risk reduction
riverbed
river water (noun)
road map
role
roll-call
rollover (noun)
roman numeral
round robin (noun)
round-robin (adj.)
round table (noun)
round-table (adj.)
routeing
rumour
runoff
rural-urban (demographic
  movement)
rural/urban (comparison)
 
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S

 
saltwater (noun and adj.)
sandstorm
sceptic, sceptical, scepticism
school-age (adj.)
schoolchild
schoolteacher
seabed
sea floor
sea ice (noun)
sea-ice (adj.)
sea level (noun but sea-level adj.)
seaport
seasonal-to-interannual (adj.)
sea surface (noun), sea-surface (adj.)
seawater (noun and adj.)
Secretary-General (plural: Secretaries-
  General)
sectoral
self: compound forms are hyphenated
semi-annual
semicircle
semi-skilled
setback (noun)
set-up (noun)
sewage (waste matter)
sewerage (system of drains)
shelterbelt
shortcoming
shortfall
shortlist (noun and verb)
short-lived
short range (noun), short-range (adj.)
short term (noun), short-term (adj.)
short wave (noun), short-wave (adj.)
side effect
signal-to-noise ratio
sine qua non
sinkhole
sizeable
size class
skilful
slow down (verb)
slowdown (noun)
snow (compound forms are closed,
  exceptions are
  snow cover, snow depth, snow line)
sociocultural
sociodemographic
socio-economic
socio-medical
sombre
south(ern), south-east(ern), south-
  west(ern) (a geographical direction or
  an area within a country)
South(ern), South-East(ern), South-
  West(ern) (a continent or major region,
  e.g. South America, Southern Africa,
  Southern Europe, South-East Asia;
  exception: Association of Southeast
  Asian Nations)
southern hemisphere
South Pole
South-South cooperation
southward
spatial-profile models
specialize
spelled
spillover (noun and adj.)
staff member
stakeholder
standby (noun and adj.)
stand-alone
stationary (not moving)
stationery (paper)
status quo
steady-state equation
stock market
stockpile
stocktaking
storey (building)
storm surge
storm track
straightforward
streamflow
sub-account
sub-amendment
subarctic
sub-area
sub-block
sub-branch
sub-centre
subcommission
subcommittee
subdistrict
sub-entry
sub-folder
sub-group
subheading
sub-issue
sub-item
subject matter
sub-office
subparagraph
subpolar
subprogram (computing only)
subprogramme
subregion
sub-Saharan
subsection
subsector
subsoil
subsurface
substandard
subtitle
subtotal
sub-unit
succour
summarize
sun
Sun (the celestial body)
sunburn(ed)
sunflower
sunlight
sunrise
sunset
sunshine
sunstroke
Sun-synchronous (attrib. adj.)
supersede
superstructure
supervisor
surface water (noun)
surface-water (adj.)
symposium (plural: symposiums)
 
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T

 
takeover (noun)
targeted, targeting
tariff
taxpayer
televise
test-ban (adj.)
therefor (for that purpose)
therefore (consequently)
third-party (adj.)
thunderstorm
time-consuming
time deposit
time frame
time-horizon
time lag
time limit
timeline
time period
timescale
time series
timespan
timetable
title page
tomato (pl. tomatoes)
tonne
topsoil
tornado (pl. tornadoes)
totalled, totalling
towards
tradable
trade-off (noun)
traffic
training-ground
tranquillity
transatlantic
transboundary
transferable, transference
transferred, transferring
trans-ship
travelled, travelling
tsunami (plural: tsunamis)
tunnelled, tunnelling
turning point
turnover
turnaround (noun))
two-faced
twofold
typesetting
tyre
 
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U

 
ultra: compound forms are closed,
  e.g. ultraviolet, ultrasonic,
  except: ultra-high frequency (noun),
  ultra-high-frequency (adj.)
underreport,
underrepresent
Under-Secretary-General
under age 5
underway
uni: compound forms are closed
unmistakable
update
updatable
updraught
upgrade
uplink
upper age-limit
uproot
upstream
up-to-date (attrib. adj.)
up to date (pred. adj.)
upward (adj. and adv.)
urban-dweller
urban-rural (demographic movement)
urban/rural (comparison)
usability
usable
use-effectiveness
use failure
use-failure rate
user-friendly
utilize
 
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V

 
value added (noun and adj.)
value system
vapour
versus
via
vice-chairman
vice-president
vice versa
video camera
video cassette
videoconference
videodisc
videotape (noun and verb)
viewpoint
vigour
vis-à-vis
 
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W

 
wage earner
wage-earning (adj.)
wagon
wartime
wastewater
watch list (noun and adj.)
watchword
waterborne
watercourse
water-hole
water level
waterlogged
water related (pred. adj.)
water-related (attrib. adj.)
water resources (noun and adj.)
watershed
waterspout
water supply
water table
waterway
wavelength
weather related (pred. adj.),
weather-related (attrib. adj.)
Web (World Wide Web)
* webcast
* webmaster
* web page (noun)
* web-page (adj.)
* website
weekday
weekend
well: compound adjectives are hyphenated
  only when used attributively
  (e.g. a well-designed project;
  the project is well designed)
well-being
well water (noun)
west(ern) (a geographical direction or an
  area within a country)
  West(ern) (a major region, e.g. West
  Africa , Western Europe )
westward
wetland(s)
whistle-blower
wholehearted
wildfire
wilful
windbreak
wind field
wind gauge
windrose
wind shear
wind speed
windstorm
windward
withhold
word-process
word-processing
word processor
workflow
workforce
work-hour
working hours
workload
work permit
workplace
workplan
workshop
workstation
worldwide
worthwhile
write off (verb)
write-off (noun)
 
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X

 
X-ray  
   
top
Top

line


 
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