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Automatic Weather Station (AWS) web portal
An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. An AWS will typically consist of a weather-proof enclosure containing the data logger, rechargeable battery, telemetry (optional) and the meteorological sensors with an attached solar panel or wind turbine and mounted upon a mast. The specific configuration may vary due to the purpose of the system. The system may report in near real time via the Argos System and the Global Telecommunications System, or save the data for later recovery. In the past, automatic weather stations were often placed where electricity and communication lines were available. Nowadays, the solar panel, wind turbine and mobile phone technology have made it possible to have wireless stations that are not connected to the electrical grid or telecommunications network.
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Training Materials
Siting & Exposure
Road Weather Information System Environmental Sensor Station Siting Guidelines
Siting of Instruments in Urban Areas
Guidelines for the Siting and Exposure of Meteorological Instruments and Observing Facilities
(Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Australia - Observations Specification 2013.1)
Siting Standards for Meteorological Observing Sites
(Meteorological Service of Canada - MSC 2-2001)
Siting and maintenance of Weather Stations
Federal Standard For Siting Meteorological Sensors At Airports
Where to site weather station, how to choose a location
Siting and Exposure
Procurement and Installation
List of Weather Station Software
Automatic Weather Station Installed at Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
Mercury [Hg] How to prevent severe illness and to protect the environment (2010)
Introducing the Concept of Uncertainty of Measurement in Testing in Association with the Application of the Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (ILAC G17:2002)
Guidelines for the determination of calibration intervals of measuring instruments (ILAC G24:2007)
ILAC Policy on Traceability of Measurement Results (ILAC P10:01:2013)
Laboratory Accreditation from ILAC (2011)
ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Guidance and laboratory quality manual template
Online tutorial of StatSoft, a statistical software
Met Office Surface Data Users Guide
Algorithms & Procedures
ASOS Basic Algorithms
Automated discrimination of precipitation type using the FD12P present weather sensor: evaluation and opportunities (2007)
Doppler Radar Theory and Meteorology (2005)
Methods for detecting fog and measuring visibility
WindSonic - How it works
Hygrometer: Principle of Operation CHILLED MIRROR HYGROMETERS (2006)
Automatic Cloud Cover Detection by Surface Downward Longwave Radiation Measurements (2003)
HTB weather and precipitation sensors (2007)
Ultrasonic snow depth sensors for measuring snow in the U.S. (2006)
Quality & Performance Monitoring
Interactive quality assurance practices (2008)
MADIS Meteorological Surface Quality Control (2007)
More Quality Control for Weather Station Networks (2007)
Strategies for evaluating quality control procedures (2007)
Instrumental quality control on raw data collected by automatic weather stations of a new ground-based measurement network in Switzerland (2006)
Implementing an enhanced and integrated quality assurance and quality control system within the MSC's new Data Management Framework (2006)
The design of a quality control algorithm for environmental sensor stations (2006)
The development of an operational quality assurance system for OASIS Super Site data at the Oklahoma Mesonet (2006)
Automated real-time operational rain gauge quality control tools in NWS hydrologic operations (2006)
An End-to-End Quality Assurance System for the Modernized Coop Network (2005)
Integrated hydrometeorological monitoring solutions and network management (2005)
An update on MADIS observation ingest, integration, quality control, and distribution capabilities (2005)
The Value of Routine Site Visits in Managing and Maintaining Quality Data from the Oklahoma Mesonet (2004)
The Value of a Quality Assurance Meteorologist (2004)
Real-time Soil Moisture Information for Drought Monitoring and Assessment (2004)
Quality Control of Meteorological Observations (2002)
Quality Control Tools for Meteorological Data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse System (2003)
A new automated and interactive system for solar radiation data processing and quality control
Automated Quality Control of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Data (2003)
The Quality Control and Monitoring System (2004)
Met Monitoring Guide (8. Quality Assurance and Quality Control)
Instrument tests
Evaluation of the Nubiscope (2006)
Instrument test of ALMOS AWS MSI2 (1999)
Automated Stations
Evaluation of Milos 500 AWS unit (1999)
Performance tests on Vaisala DTS-12A
Temperature Sensors
A Preliminary Investigation of Temperature Screen Design and Their Impacts on Temperature Measurements (1998)
Performance Tests on a Rotronic MP101A Humidity/Temperature Probe (1995)
The Practical Impacts of RTD and Thermometer Design on Wet and Dry Bulb Relative Humidity Measurements (1998)
Performance Tests on a Vaisala HMP35D Humidity/Temperature Probe (1999)
Evaluation of the Output Variability of Rotronics MP101A Humidity Probes (2001)
Evaluation of Vaisala HMP45D Humidity Probes (2002)
Wind Tunnel Evaluation Test Report: part A & part B
Repeatability of the Monash Wind Tunnel (1999)
Performance Verification of Vaisala Anemometers (2003)
The Conversion Equation of the Synchrotac 706 Anemometer (2004)
Calibration Check of a Vaisala PTB201A Barometer (1999)
Test of a Crouzet 2100 Digital Barometer against the WMO Region V Standard Barometer (1995)
The Southern Oscillation and Characterisation of a Kew Pattern Barometer (1995)
Comparison between the Regional Association V and the Malaysian Standard Barometers (1996)
Comparison of the Regional Association V and A Fuess (S/N F6754) Standard Barometer for the Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (1998)
Electronic Barometer Testing - Replacement Barometer Project (1999)
Drift Test of a Hydrological Services TB3A TBRG (1996)
Evaluation of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Calibrator (2000)
Acceptance Tests of 20 Hydrological Services TB3B Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges (1999)
Stability of five McVann Model 7499 TBRG (2001)
Evaluation of the Hydrological Services Precipitation Gauge Tipping Bucket Type TB-3 (2003)
Evaluation of RIC Designed Pumped TBRG Tester (Rex) (2003)
Evaluation of the RIMCO Precipitation Gauge Tipping Bucket Model 7499 (2003)
Evaluation of the ENVIRONDATA Precipitation Gauge Tipping Bucket Model RG-15 (2003)
Laboratory Evaluation of the Bureau Designed Heated TBRG (2003)
Evaluation of a RIMCO 9100 automatic evaporation sensor (2002)
The Uncertainty of the Hydrological Services Field Calibration Device (2004)
Hydrological measurement
Evaluation of Desiccants (2002)
Upper-air Measurement
Instrument Inter-comparison
Exploration of the quality of the precipitation intensity reported by the FD12P present weather sensor (2007)
Thermometer Screen Intercomparison in De Bilt (the Netherlands),
Part I: Understanding the weather-dependent temperature differences (2007)
Evaluation of the Nubiscope (2006)
Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers
(KNMI Technical Report No. 296) (2005)
Comparison of Two Disdrometers Based od Different Principles (2002)
Five examples of Instrument intercomparison (2001)
Ice-Free Sensors - The EUMETNET SWS II Project (2003)
ASOS and Human Observation Comparisons
A comparative study of ASOS and CRN temperature measurements (2004)
Field and Operational tests of a Sonic Anemometer for the Automated Surface Observing System (2004)
Winter Test of Production All-Weather Precipitation Accumulation Gauge for ASOS 2003–2004 (2005)
Image Comparison from two cloud cover sensor in infrared and visible spectral regions: Total Sky Imager (TSI) and Cloud Infrared Radiometer (CIR) (2005)
An Evaluation of Two Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensors for Potential Use at Automated Surface Weather Observing Sites (2005)
Operational Testing of Various Precipitation Sensors in Support of the United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) (2005)
Traceability & Calibration & Uncertainty
Understanding of Traceability and Uncertainty
Uncertainty of Measurements Results (2000)
The Value of Weather Station Metadata (2005)
The Value of Routine Site Visits in Managing and Maintaining Quality Data from the Oklahoma Mesonet (2004)
Routine and Preventive Maintenance
Siting and Maintenance of Weather Stations (2010)
Training Material & Presentations
NOAA's NWS Cooperative Observer Program - Training Materials, Resources
NOAA automated Surface Observing System User's Guide
Operational Quality Control in Helsinki Testbed (2007)
Automatic Weather Station Operation Training Materials (2010)
TECO-2006; WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation, Geneva
Other CIMO and TECO joint conference
Short Course on Introduction to Meteorological Instrumentation and Observation Techniques (2001)
Automation of National Observing System (RA VI Seminar on Capacity Building and New technologies in Meteorology, Bulgaria, 2001)
WCRP Workshop on Determination of Solid Precipitation in Cold Climate Regions, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2002
New Sensor Development
New Products from HMEI Members
HMEI Members' News
Other Interesting Links
Laboratory Accreditation Bureau
International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation
European Association of National Metrology Institutes
The UK's National Measurement Laboratory
The Association of Hydro-Meteorological Equipment Industry (HMEI)
Surface Weather Observations and Reports
Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 1 The meteorological Resource Centre
ARM Instrument collections
Web site maintained by Meteo-Technology with useful information about manufacturers and suppliers of meteorological and related equipment



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