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Knowledge-sharing Portal

Purpose of this web portal is to enable Members to share their experience and knowledge on Instruments and Methods of Observation, thus facilitating others' everyday work.

Please, help us to improve this portal and do not hesitate to provide comments, suggestions, and other related material and links by sending us an email.


 1. Siting and Exposure
 2. Guidance and Training Material
 3. Quality Assurance and Quality Control
 4. Instrument Tests, Evaluations and Comparisons
 5. Methods of observation and Applications
 6. Safety Procedures
 7. Selected Conference Proceedings
 8. Other Relevant Links

1. Siting and Exposure 

Quality Assessment using METEO-Cert: The MeteoSwiss Classification Procedure for Automatic Weather Stations (2017)
Temperature siting classification in Nordic Countries (M. Wolff et al., Norwegian Meteorological Institute, No. 17/2016)
WMO Siting Classification for Surface Observing Stations on Land
Siting and Maintenance of Weather Stations (The University of Arizona, 2010)
Initial Guidance to Obtain Representative Meteorological Observations at Urban Sites (WMO/TD-No. 1250, IOM Report NO. 84, 2006)
Siting Standards for Meteorological Observing Sites (Meteorological Service of Canada, 2001)

2. Guidance and Training Material

Automatic Weather Station Operation Training Materials (CoWIN, HKO, 2014) AWS
ASOS and Human Observation Comparisons (NOAA/NWSTC)
Training Material on Automated Weather Observing Systems (WMO/IOM Report No. 87, WMO/TD-No. 1307, 2006)
NPL guides on measurement understanding and technical abilities (NPL, UK) Measurements/ Observations
Metrology within Meteorology  - WMO Training  Workshop on Metrology in RA V (ppt, Melbourne, Australia, 2011)
Training Material on Metrology and Calibration (WMO/IOM Report No. 86, WMO/TD-No. 1306, 2006) English; French
Measurement Theory (ppt)
Surface Weather Observations and Reports (Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 1, Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, 2005)
Met Monitoring Guide (The Meteorological Resource Center -, 2002)
Solar radiation
Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) - Operations Manual (WCRP-121, WMO/TD-No. 1274, 2005)
Maintenance keeps radars running (Bulletin of AMS, E. Saltikoff et al., 2017) Radars
Information Flyer on Traceability (WMO, 2015)





Traceability and Uncertainty (poster) (NPL, 2015)
ILAC Policy on Traceability of Measurement Results (ILAC P10:01/2013)
ILAC Policy for Uncertainty in Calibration (ILAC P14:01/2013)
Securing testing, measurement or calibration services - The difference between accreditation and certification (ILAC B5:06/2013)
Uncertainty Analysis - WMO Training  Workshop on Metrology in RA V (ppt, Melbourne, Australia, 2011)
Guidelines for the determination of calibration intervals of measuring instruments (ILAC G24:2007 - under revision)
Guidance for Documenting and Implementing ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & Laboratory Guidance (Laboratory Accrediation Bureau, 2006)
Introducing the Concept of Uncertainty of Measurement in Testing in Association with the Application of the Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (ILAC G17:2002 - under revision)
Uncertainty of Measurements Results (NIST, 2000)
Interlaboratory Comparison in the field of Wind Speed (TSMS, 2018) Interlaboratory Comparisons
Interlaboratory Comparison in the field of Temperature, Humidity and Pressure in the WMO Regional Association VI (MM-ILC-2015-THP, 2018)
SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI) SI
International Vocabulary of Metrology - Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM), (JCGM 200:2012) VIM
VIM - WMO Training  Workshop on Metrology in RA V (ppt, Melbourne, Australia, 2011)
Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM), (JCGM 100:2008) GUM
Training Materials, Resources (NOAA/NWS, Cooperative Observer Program, 2013) Miscellaneous

3. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

MADIS Quality Control (NOAA/NWC, 2014)
The Value of Weather Station Metadata (13th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, J.E. Martinez et al., Oklahoma Climatological Survey, 2005)
Quality Control and Monitoring System (NOAA, 2005)
Quality Control Tools for Meteorological Data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse System (ICAM/MAP, M. Musa et al., 2003)

4. Instrument Tests, Evaluations and Comparisons

Automatic Weather Stations

WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (2018)

(see also the list of SPICE publications)

Drift Test of a Hydrological Services TB3A TBRG (Instrument Test Report No. 644, D. Anderson, BoM, pdf, 1996)
NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison - NPC-2013 (16-27 September, 2013) Radiation
NubiScope - Laboratory tests and field evaluation (W. Wauben et. al., KNMI, TR-334, 2012) Clouds
Severe weather
Hydrological measurement
An assessment of different radiosonde types 2015/2016 (B. Ingleby, TM-807, ECMWF, 2017) Upper-air Measurement

The Threat to Weather Radars by Wireless Technology (Bulletin of AMS, 97(8), E. Saltikoff et al., FMI, 2016)


5. Methods of Observation and Applications

6. Safety Procedures

UNEP Minamata Convention on Mercury
Information Flyer on Mercury-based Instruments Ban (WMO, 2015)

7. Selected Conference Proceedings

TECO-2018 (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 8-11 October 2018) -  Proceedings CIMO-TECO
TECO-2016 (Madrid, Spain, 27-30 September 2016) -  Proceedings; Presentations and recordings
TECO-2014 (Sankt Petersburg, Russian Federation, 7-9 July 2014)
TECO-2012 (Brussels, Belgium, 16-18 October 2012) - Presentations
TECO-2008 (Sankt Petersburg, Russian Federation, 27-29 November 2008) -  Presentations
TECO-2002 (Bratislava, Slovakia, 23-25 September 2002)
TECO-2000 (Beijing, China, 23-27 October 2000)
WMO International Conference on Automatic Weather Stations (Offenbach am Main, Germany, 24-26 October 2017) - Poceedings; Presentations and recordings ICEAWS
4th International Conference on Experiences with Automatic Weather Stations (Lisbon, Portugal, 24-26 May 2006)
3rd International Conference on Experiences with Automatic Weather Stations (Torremolinos, Spain, 19-21 February 2003) - Opening, Theme 1, Theme 2, Theme 3, Theme 4
2nd International Conference on Experiences with Automatic Weather Stations on Operational Use witin National Weather Services (Vienna, Austria, 27-29 September 1999)
International Workshop on Experiences with Automatic Weather Stations on Operational Use witin National Weather Services (Vienna Austria, 15-17 May 1995)
8th European Conference on Radar in Metorology and Hydrology (Garmish-Partenkirchen, Germany, 1-5 September 2014) ERAD
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8. Other Relevant Links

The WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) WIGOS
The Global Observing System (GOS) GOS
The World Weather Watch Programme (WWW) WWW
Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review Tool (OSCAR) OSCAR
WMO Quality Management Framework (QMF) QMF
The Association of Hydro-Meteorological Equipment Industry (HMEI) HMEI
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ICAO
The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) OIML
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEC



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