WMO carries out its work through 10 major scientific and technical programmes. These are designed to assist all Members to provide, and benefit from, a wide range of meteorological and hydrological services and to address present and emerging problems. The programmes are based on the concept and experience that mutual benefits are gained from cooperative use of the pool of knowledge that has been, and is still being, created by worldwide sharing of meteorological, hydrological and related information among Members. The programmes of WMO make possible the provision of meteorological and related services in all countries at costs far below those that would be incurred if each Member acted alone.
The World Weather Watch (WWW) Programme is a core programme of WMO. It combines observing systems, information systems and telecommunication facilities, and data-processing and forecasting centres— operated by Members—to provide the backbone for efficient meteorological and hydrological services, worldwide. It also includes the Tropical Cyclone Programme, the Antartctic Activities programme, and an Emergency Response Activities programme for environmental emergencies associated with nuclear accidents, volcanic eruptions, and other similar environmental hazards. Additionally, the WWW Programme includes the Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme to ensure the quality of the observations which are vital for weather forecasting and climate monitoring.
The World Climate Programme (WCP) promotes the improvement of the understanding of climate processes through internationally coordinated research and the monitoring of climate variations or changes. It also promotes the application of climate information and services to assist in economic and social planning and development. The research component of the Programme is the joint responsibility of WMO, the International Council for Science and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies component is coordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme.
The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) focuses on the coordination and application of global observations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, ozone, ultraviolet radiation, aerosols, selected reactive gases and precipitation chemistry. It supports international conventions on ozone depletion, climate and long-range transport of air pollution.
The World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) supports research to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques and their application for socio-economic benefit and in decision-making. Activities are conducted that add value to Members’ research in synoptic predictability tropical meteorology, weather forecasting on all scales, forecast verification and linking forecast products to societal benefit areas. It also manages the WMO sand- and duststorm early warning system.
The Applications of Meteorology Programme (AMP) consists of four essential programme areas: public weather services, agricultural meteorology, aeronautical meteorology and marine meteorology and oceanography. The Programme promotes the development of infrastructure, expertise and services which are required in those areas for the benefit of Member countries.
The Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (HWRP) is concerned with assessment of the quantity and quality of water resources in order to meet the needs of society, to permit mitigation of water-related hazards, and to maintain or enhance the condition of the global environment. It includes standardization of all aspects of hydrological observations and the organized transfer of hydrological techniques and methods. The Programme is closely coordinated with UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme.
The Education and Training Programme (ETRP) has as its goal to assist Member countries in obtaining adequately qualified staff for their National Meteorological and Hydrological Services so as to enable them to discharge efficiently and cost-effectively their current responsibilities and meet the challenges of new technologies. The main strategy for achieving this goal is collaboration with international partners, universities, relevant training institutions, schools and the media. The Programme works closely with all WMO scientific and technical Programmes in organizing specialized training in weather-, climate- and water-related fields.
The Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) coordinates the resource-mobilization activities leading to the development of NMHSs worldwide and comprises the mainstream of organized transfer of meteorological and hydrological knowledge and proven methodology among the Members of the Organization. Particular emphasis is laid upon the provision of a wide range of weather, climate and water services; on strengthening and operating key World Weather Watch infrastructures; on supporting the WMO Education and Training Programme; and on implementing the WMO Programme for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The TCO Programme is funded mainly by WMO’s own Voluntary Cooperation Programme, UNDP, trust funds and the WMO regular budget.
The Regional Programme (RP) cuts across the other major WMO Programmes of relevance to the respective Regions and addresses meteorological, hydrological and related environmental issues which are unique to, and of common concern to, a Region or group of Regions. It provides a framework for the formulation of most of the global WMO Programmes and serves as a mechanism for their implementation at the national, subregional and regional levels. It promotes the development and implementation of regional/subregional initiatives in meteorology and hydrology among Members and cooperation with regional economic communities.
The WMO Space Programme (SAT) is based on three cornerstones: a space component that responds to the needs of WMO and WMO-supported programmes; a data-dissemination and access system that is a core component of the WMO Information System; and a capacity-building component to increase the effectiveness of satellite data and products through their improved utilization. SAT provides satellite observations, derived products and services relating to climate, the ocean, agriculture, aviation, atmospheric chemistry and the water cycle, as well as natural hazards, for all WMO programmes.
The Disaster Risk Reduction Programme (DRR) is a cross-cutting programme that underpins WMO’s mission to protect lives, livelihoods and property. It ensures the integration of relevant activities being carried out under the various WMO Programmes in the area of disaster risk reduction and implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. It provides for the effective coordination of WMO activities with the related activities of international, regional and national organizations, including development, humanitarian and civil protection organizations, particularly in support of risk assessment, early warning systems and capacity building. The Programme also provides scientific and technical support to WMOs actions in response to disaster situations.
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